Microsoft Excel is a powerful spreadsheet software program that is widely used for data analysis, organization, and calculation purposes. It is part of the Microsoft Office suite of productivity tools and is available for Windows and Mac platforms. Excel provides users with a vast array of features that allow them to create, edit, and manage spreadsheets with ease. Some of the most commonly used features include the ability to insert and manipulate data in cells, perform calculations with formulas and functions, create charts and graphs to visualize data, and perform data analysis with pivot tables and advanced filtering.

In this tutorial we will learn how to convert a cell reference to an absolute cell reference using the F4 key in Microsoft Excel. Creating an absolute cell reference in Microsoft Excel is a useful way to keep a cell reference constant, even when the formula is copied to other cells. An absolute reference is denoted by a dollar sign **($)**, and it ensures that the reference to a specific cell remains the same, no matter where the formula is copied. The **F4** key is a convenient tool for creating absolute cell references in Excel.

## Method 1 : Converting a cell reference to an Absolute Cell Reference

## Step 1 – Select the Cell Reference

- Select the cell reference to be converted to Absolute Cell reference.

## Step 2 – Press the F4 key

- After selecting the cell reference press the F4 key the cell reference will be converted into an absolute cell reference i.e. from
**A1 to $A$1**.

## Step 3 – Example of Absolute Cell Reference

- The column and row of the absolute cell reference are fixed and they do not change i.e.

In the example below neither the column is changing nor the row is changing.

## Method 2 : Converting a cell reference to a Mixed Cell Reference i.e Only Row is fixed

## Step 1 – Select the Cell Reference

- Select the cell reference to be converted to Mixed Cell reference in which only the row is fixed.

## Step 2 – Press the F4 key Twice

- After selecting the cell reference press the F4 key the cell reference will be converted into an absolute cell reference i.e. from
**A1 to $A$1**. - Again Press the F4 key and the absolute cell reference will then be converted to mixed cell reference
**A$1**in which only row is fixed and the column is variable.

## Step 3 – Example of Mixed Cell Reference i.e Only Row is fixed.

- In mixed cell reference with only rows fixed the row will not change,only the column will change i.e. in the example below only the column is changing, the row is fixed.

## Method 3 : Converting a cell reference to a Mixed Cell Reference i.e Only Column is fixed.

## Step 1 – Select the Cell Reference

- Select the cell reference to be converted to Mixed Cell reference in which only the column is fixed.

## Step 2 – Press the F4 key Three Times

- After selecting the cell reference press the F4 key the cell reference will be converted into an absolute cell reference i.e. from A1 to $A$1.
- Again Press the F4 key and the absolute cell reference will then be converted to mixed cell reference in which only row is fixed.
- Once again press the F4 key,now the cell reference will be converted to mixed cell reference in which only the column is fixed.

## Step 3 – Example of Mixed Cell Reference i.e Only Column is fixed.

- In mixed cell reference with only columns fixed the column will not change,only the row will change i.e. in the example below only the row is changing, the column is fixed.