# How to repeat a function in Excel

Repeating a function in Excel refers to the process of duplicating and applying a function or formula to multiple cells or ranges. It involves either absolute or relative references. Absolute references keep certain values constant while others vary during repetition, while relative references adjust based on the position of the copied function. The choice between absolute and relative references depends on the desired behavior and how cell references should adjust when the function is repeated.

## Case 1 – Relative reference

Relative function refers to a formula in Excel where the cell references adjust relative to the position of the formula when copied or filled down. Here we have a data set for PKR to USD conversion to explain relative reference and how to carry out that function to multiple cells.

## Step 1 – Write the formula

• Select the cell
• Enter the formula in the formula bar or in the desired cell
• Press Enter to get the result of that specific cell

## Step 2 – Repeat the function

• To repeat the function select the cell
• Move your cursor to the bottom right corner of the selected cell until it turns into a small black “+” sign.
• Click and drag the cursor down or across the range of cells where you want to apply the formula.

## Case 2 – Absolute reference

Absolute reference means keeping a cell reference constant when copying a formula in Excel. In this dataset, we are only provided with the basic information that 1 USD equals 283 PKR and we need to convert the salaries of employees, that are in PKR into USD. We will perform the conversion using this given exchange rate.

## Step 1 – Write the formula

• Select the cell.
• Write the formula in the desired cell or in the formula bar.
• In the formula one of the cells should be constant in this case value number 2 is kept constant.
• To keep a value constant in multiple cells, select it and press F4.
• The value will be locked with dollar signs for both row and column references.
• Press enter to execute the formula.

## Step 2 – Repeat the function

• Just select the cell in which the answer was executed.
• Move your cursor to the bottom right corner of the selected cell until it turns into a small black “+” sign.
• Click and drag the cursor down or across the range of cells where you want to apply the formula.
• This time the cell \$B\$2 will not change when the formula will be copied down to the whole column. This is due to the reason that we used the Absolute reference time.